A History of Bioresonance Testing


eThe first reported use of electricity in medicine was in 2750 B.C., de­scribed in Egyptian tombs, using the fish species Malopteurus electricus. Several descriptions of therapeutic benefits, including pain control from exposure to the electric eel, were described by the Greeks in the first century.

Around 1600, William Gilbert, an English physician, coined the word “electric” and established the difference between electricity and mag­netism. In 1752, Johann Schaeffer published the book “Electrical Medi­cine.” By that time, many physicians were reportedly using electricity in their practices. In 1830, Carlo Matteucci, a professor of physics at Pisa showed that electrical current was generated by injured tissues. In 1858, Dr. Francis, a Philadelphia physician, was first to describe the relief of dental pain by electricity.

After 164 successful tooth ex­tractions using “galvanism,” he received a patent on May 25, 1858. Although his device was denounced by the Pennsylvania Association of Dental Surgeons, the methods used by Francis spread throughout America and Europe. In that same year, W. G. Oliver of Buffalo claimed the discovery of “electrical anesthesia,” reporting a 98 percent success rate using a vibrating generator for dental pain. Again in that same year, Harding, at the University College Hospital, London, confirmed Oliver’s results with studies of 40 tooth extractions.

He also set up a control subject who had results when the current was applied but did not experience any change under the same conditions without current. By the late 1800’s, the use of electricity in medicine was wide-spread and described in such medical texts as Osler’s “Practice of Medicine.”

At the turn of the century, the business atmosphere in the United States “…reflected laissez-faire policy at its extreme. High government offi­cials were corrupted by the railroads, the public was swindled by fla­grant stock-market manipulations, embalmed beef was shipped to sol­diers in the Spanish-American War. Advertising contributed to the immorality of business with its patent-medicine ads offering to cure all the real and imagined ailments of man.

There was a `pleasing Medi­cine to cure cancer,’ another to cure cholera. No promise of a quick cure was too wild, no falsehood too monstrous.” A variety of electric gadgets emerged and were marketed in a similar manner to snake oils and other patent medicines by various charlatans. This problem, to­gether with the “almost total lack of standards in medical education and practice at that time, produced a deplorable situation.” 3

To investigate this situation, the Carnegie Foundation established a commis­sion headed by Abraham Flexner. The commission’s final report was published in 1910, and it produced an almost instantaneous revision of medical education. Electrotherapy became a scientifically insup­portable technique, and it disappeared from medical practice.

Doctors using electric instruments of any sort were branded as quacks and charlatans. In the backlash of this mindset, electronic devices of diag­nostic or therapeutic value have been slow to be accepted. Even now, a great deal of suspicion surrounds the use of electrodiagnosis and elec­trotherapy.

In spite of the virtual disappearance of all electrical therapy, investiga­tion has continued into the electric nature of biological systems in health and disease states. A great deal has been discovered, and legiti­mate diagnostic and therapeutic devices based on these sound discov­eries have emerged.

fIn the early 1950’s, Reinhold Voll, a German medical doctor, developed an electronic testing device for finding acupuncture points electrically. He was successful in finding acupuncture points and demonstrating that these points, known to Chinese acupuncturists for millennia, had a different resistance to a tiny electrical current passed through the body, than did the adjacent tissues. Many other researchers have also verified that electrical conductance at the acupuncture points is sig­nificantly greater than the surrounding tissue.

Dr Voll and Acupuncture Points

Voll then began a life­ long search to identify correlations between disease states and changes in the electrical resistance of the various acupuncture points. He thought that if he could identify electrical changes in certain acupunc­ture points associated with certain diseases, then he might be able to identify those diseases more easily, or earlier, when treatment inter­vention was likely to be more effective.

Voll was successful in identify­ing many acupuncture points related to specific conditions and pub­lished a great deal of information about using acupuncture points di­agnostically.” (Until Voll, these points had been used mainly for treat­ment.) He found, for example, that patients with lung cancer had ab­normal readings on the acupuncture points referred to as lung points. Changes also occurred in the electrical conductance of the acupunc­ture points supplying musculoskeletal structures that are inflamed.

dThese changes in acupuncture point resistance related to lung cancer have been verified more recently by researchers from UCLA and USC. In a double-blind study, 3 patients with lung cancer and 20 controls (who had negative chest x-rays) had the electrical resistance of several acupuncture lung points and several small intestine points measured. There was an 87 percent correlation between the testing results and the results of the X-ray diagnosis for the lung points, and no correla­tion with the small intestine points.

Of interest, there were no false negatives and 4 “false” positives. Two of these false positive readings were from the same patient who had an “inconsistent shadow” on his lung X-ray but had shown no evidence of disease with tomograms and a CT scan. These “false positive” readings could have been from lung cancer not yet diagnosed, or some other degenerative disease process, or could have been merely incorrect readings. #

A “false positive” is when the patient has a preclinical condition that cannot yet be detected using allopathic methods but is picked up using bioresonance testing.

A “false negative” is when the patient has a clinical or preclinical condition that is not picked up using bioresonance testing.

Another study from the Pain Management Clinic, Department of An­esthesiology, UCLA School of Medicine, evaluated the ability of elec­trodermal testing to identify, in a blinded fashion, areas of pain. Forty patients were determined by medical examination to have musculosk­eletal pain. Each patient was draped to hide any physical evidence to suggest where the pain might be. The physician conducting the elec­trodermal testing had no prior knowledge of the patient’s history, and was not allowed to talk to the patient.

dBased on increased skin conduc­tance at specific acupuncture points of the ears, the physician deter­mined, with greater than 75 percent accuracy, the location of the pain, a highly significant result. This study also pointed out that electroder­mal testing technique “is often sensitive to pathological problems of which the patient is only minimally aware. When some patients were told of their auricular diagnosis results, they suddenly remembered having a minor or old pain problem in that bodily area, a problem which they had neglected to mention during the medical evaluation,” and thus were considered to be “misses” in the statistical analysis .The results of this test were therefore more impressive than the statistical analysis would indicate.

A great deal has been done throughout the world correlating changes in electrical conductance at acupuncture points with various disease entities. Much of the German, French, Japanese, and Chinese litera­ture has not been translated. Only a few examples of the many articles related to finding and measuring acupuncture points electrically are referenced in this lesson.

Dr Voll and Allergy Testing

Voll discovered that certain acupuncture points showed abnormal read­ings when subjects were reacting allergically. He made several seren­dipitous discoveries related to “allergy” testing. He noted some as usual readings on certain acupuncture points when a patient had a bottle of medicine in his pocket. He could remove the bottle and consis­tently get different readings when the bottle was in his pocket com­ pared to when it was not.

At first he was baffled as to how a closed bottle of medicine outside the body could affect the acupuncture read­ings. It was even more baffling when he discovered that the glass bottle of medicine could change the freadings when it was in contact any­ where along the closed electric circuit involved with the testing proce­dure. Voll and his colleagues then began work to identify the nature of this strange phenomena. They inserted a metal plate into the circuit and demonstrated that many substances that precluded changes in acupuncture point readings when ingested could produce the same changes when placed on the plate (even in closed glass bottles).

They assumed that there must be some kind of electro-magnetic energy be­ing emitted from the substances, and that these energy fields some­how traveled along the electric circuit to the body (perhaps like the energy waves representing a person’s voice travels along the electric circuitry of a telephone line).

Voll and other scientists have conducted various experiments in an attempt to characterize the energy form that is being measured. As yet, no clear consensus of opinion exists as to exactly how this phe­nomenon functions. For that matter, no clear consensus exists how any electric phenomena function. Although it used to be thought that electricity was fairly straight forward and well understood, many dis­coveries in the last few years have made many scientists question older theories.

Robert Beck, a physicist well known for his pioneering work in various areas of electromagnetism, said the following, “Man is an extremely complex biocosmic resonator. And it will be quite a few years before even the effect of some of these simple stimulation-type devices are well understood, much less fully understood.” 22

Electrodermal testing devices have been extensively studied by Dr. William Tiller from Stanford, who is a professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. He has written extensively in an attempt to explain the electric behavior of the skin and how electroder­mal diagnostic and treatment instruments function 23,24

Dr. Cyril Smith, Ph.D physicist in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Uni­versity of Salford, England, has also written extensively in an attempt to explain various electromagnetic phenomena, including electroder­mal testing on acupuncture points .25Other world leaders in bioelectric medicine include Robert O. Becker, M.D. and his landmark book en­titled, The Body Electric – Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, 26 and Bjorn Nordenstrom, M.D. and his books The Electric Man, 27 and Biologically Closed Electric Circuits.28

hWhether or not a diagnostic or therapeutic modality is fully under­stood has absolutely no bearing on its effectiveness or usefulness.

It is beyond the scope of this lesson to attempt to explain the phenomena involved in electrodiagnostic testing. In fact, it would seem better to have no explanation at all than have an incorrect theory.

For example, the drug Hydergine has been shown to be effec­tive for improving cerebral function in older people in a number of double-blind controlled studies. The mechanism was thought to be through increasing cerebral blood flow. When further studies failed to show increased blood flow, the drug was thought by many to be inef­fective, and fell into disfavor. More recent studies have shown a vari­ety of actions that could explain the results of therapy, and it once again has become widely used .29

Evidence for Reliability of Electrodermal Testing

gThere is a great deal of controversy in medicine today over the issue of what techniques are considered experimental, and which ones are con­sidered to be adequately proven. This issue was investigated by the Office of Technology Assessment of the Congress of The United States. They produced a 133 page report entitled “Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Medical Technologies.” This report stated that “it has been estimated that only 10 to 20 percent of all procedures currently used in medical practice have been shown to be efficacious by controlled tri­als. 30

The chairman of the Utah Unproven Health Practices Committee in 1985 was asked what constitutes adequate evidence that a technology has been adequately proven? His reply was that a good double-blind study is reasonable proof, and that several double-blind studies reported by researchers from different centers is excellent proof.” Others in­volved in this issue have suggested that the agreement of experts in the field of the effectiveness and usefulness of the technology is good proof. Also, the clinical use of a technology by various medical practi­tioners is also good proof of its efficacy.

Electrodermal testing instruments have been around for over thirty five years and have been used widely in Europe and virtually around the world for allergy testing as well as for a variety of other purposes. These instruments, however, have been used for only a few years in this country. Electrodermal testing instruments have been manufac­tured in Germany, Japan, China, France, Denmark, Russia, and more recently in the United States.

dMany double-blind studies have been done using this technology. In fact, most of those practitioners who use them have set up a blinded test situation of one kind or another before they really believed that these instruments actually work. Besides the double-blind study de­scribed earlier in this paper, hundreds of patients have been tested in a double-blind fashion where the patient did not know what they were being tested for, and the instrument operator did not know anything about the patient’s reactivity. These tests usually compare favorably to the patient’s history and to testing by other techniques.

Perhaps the most convincing evidence for the accuracy and reliability of electrodermal testing came from using this testing to quickly iden­tify correct optimal treatment doses for patients who had unpleasant reactions to provocative testing. An effective dose to turn off the re­sponse would often take more than an hour by trial and error, but could almost always be found within seconds using the instrument. On those few misses, the optimal dose was within one dilution, and could easily be found.

Dr William Rea and Electrodermal Testing

Another physician who has evaluated electrodermal testing in his of­fice is William Rea, M.D. from Dallas, an internationally known pio­neer in environmental medicine. Besides serving as the director of the Environmental Health Center in Dallas, Dr. Rea has been appointed as the First World Professorial Chair in Environmental Medicine, Robens Institute, University of Surrey, England.

Dr. Rea set up a simple double-blind situation using a number of people who had reacted ad­versely to a challenge test with various antigens, and for whom an optimal treatment dosage had been found to turn off those reactions. Neither the patients nor the instrument operator knew the correct dosage. A series of dilutions were tested, and the electronic instru­ment identified the correct optimal treatment dosage out of 12 to 20 options in approximately 80 percent of the cases.

Virtually all of the “misses” were within 1 dilution of the optimal dose dilution deter­mined by trial and error, making it easy to find the optimal dose in those “misses.” Dr. Rea describes using these instruments as part of his practice to find optimal treatment doses for very sensitive patients before provoking symptoms, so that he can quickly administer an ef­fective treatment dose in case of severe reactions.

Doctors from England have for some time used electrodermal testing for allergies. One of these medical doctors reported a study in the British medical literature. 31

dThere have been at least three double-blind assessments of electroder­mal testing reported in the American medical literature. In 1989, Ali reported in the American Journal of Clinical Pathology the results of a double-blind test comparing the results of IgE antibody levels (using a microELiSA procedure) for a variety of pollens and molds to electro­ dermal testing for the same antigens. The results showed concordance between the two tests of 73 percent.32

In 1985, Krop did a double-blind test comparing electrodermal testing to sublingual and intradermal testing for a variety of foods, chemicals, and inhalants. In 66 percent of the 227 tests, the electrodermal testing identified exactly the same “neutralizing” (optimal treatment) dilution as did the intradermal and sublingual testing. 33

In 1984, researchers from the University of Hawaii compared 6 differ­ent diagnostic modalities for assessing food allergies. These tests in­cluded history, food challenge, skin, RAST, IgE antibodies, and elec­trodermal testing on 30 volunteers. The testing was done in a double­ blind fashion, with the patients not knowing what antigens were be­ing tested, and the instrument operator not knowing anything about the patient’s food sensitivities. In over 300 tests, electrodermal testing matched the history 74 percent of the time, the food rechallenge test 77 percent of the time, skin testing 71 percent of the time, and RAST testing 69 percent of the time.

The authors concluded that “the EAV (electrodermal testing) data obtained in this experiment demonstrates the highest degree of compatibility with the food challenge test, which is considered to be the most sensitive of the currently available diag­nostic techniques for food allergy. In addition, the EAV results were comparable with both skin and RAST tests.’34

In comparing these three double-blind studies, it is of interest to note that the number of “false positives” identified by electrodermal testing greatly exceeds the number of “false negatives.” The breakdown is as follows:


False positives False negatives


22 5
Krop 42 2
Tsuei 67 18
Totals: 131 25

Krop points out that in his study, the subjects were only tested to things to which they reported an adverse response. He expressed the opinion that these apparent “false positives” were not false at all, but merely reflected a greater sensitivity of the electrodermal testing compared to the more traditional testing to which it was compared. The results of the other two studies may also have reflected this greater sensitivity with electrodermal testing.

When trying to evaluate the accuracy and dependability of electroder­mal testing for food allergy testing, a number of factors about food allergy must first be understood.

Important Rules and the Significance of the Vegetative Reflex Test (VRT)

d1. The Vegetative Reflex Test (VRT) represents an advanced development of the ‘Electroacupuncture according to Voll’ (EAV) concept. It features a combination of electronic measurements of skin resistance on specific energy meridian points that disclose vital health information through vegetative (autonomic) reflexes and resonances.

2. When all conventional diagnostic tests (physical and biochemical) reveal no clues to the cause of a patient’s complaints, the disorders are most likely functional in nature rather than morphological. The VRT reveals about 80% of the otherwise undiagnosable cases of migraines, backaches, exhaustion, sleep disturbance, etc.

3. When conventional examination cannot fully or correctly explain the patient’s complaints, the VRT is highly indicative. It is superbly suited for the diagnosis of functional ailments and of clinically obscure, subclinical disorders. These make up about 20% of all indications.

4. In severe clinical cases with perplexing differential diagnosis, the VRT can be of decisive help. It can lead to wide-ranging diagnostic discoveries of utmost significance. It excels beyond all other medical tests in identifying the pathogenesis of disease.

5. The VRT, is not and cannot be, a substitute for conventional diagnostic procedures whenever they are indicated. Experienced physicians face the dilemma off and on.

6. Up-to-date experience shows that the VRT achieves the greatest rate of diagnostic success in cases of functional disturbances. This is presumably due to the physical basis of the VRT, a diagnostic system that utilizes the phenomenon of biological resonance. In addition, the experience of the therapist plays a decisive role in the accuracy of the measurements.

7. 70% of patients in an average daily practice suffer from functional disorders manifested as chronic diseases. Conventionally, they are treated with chemotherapeutics. Functional disturbances cannot be confirmed by conventional diagnostics.

8. 30-40% ofconventional laboratory tests for patients with functional ailments yield negative results (nothing of significance is revealed). This often seems to be a justification for psychotherapeutic intervention. This, in most cases is not productive.

9. Such diagnostic shortcomings of conventional medicine, results in needless suffering, with waste of time and money.

10. The VRT, which is subjective, is only as good as the clinician in charge. In the hands of aknowledgeable and experienced health professionals it can be of tremendous help to the patient. Extensive training is required for the professional to reach a level of accuracy in measurements.

11. The indications for VRT diagnostics apply to chronically ill patients with functional and subclinical disturbances (see 2 and 3). Attempting to corroborate VRT findings with conventional diagnostics would make as little sense as trying to detect sound waves with optical instruments. Functional disturbances initially are neither chemical nor morphological.

12. In Functional Medicine the VRT represents an important diagnostic method within the entire spectrum ofdiagnostic modalities.

Food Allergy Characteristics


It is important to understand the complexities involved with food intolerance testing in order to get the maximal benefit from this type of testing.

Food allergy is a complex issue. It is not just a yes or no situation. Various types of food reactions have been described, including the following:

a) Fixed allergy – A person with a fixed food allergy will react to that substance each time they come into contact with it, often even with a very tiny exposure. It doesn’t matter how long it has been since the last exposure, re-exposure will still produce a reaction.

b) Cumulative allergy – A person with a cumulative allergy to foods will only react to a specific food when they ingest enough of it to exceed their allergy threshold for that food. It may take a substantial amount of that food to evoke a reaction. A specific food may be toler­ated just fine one day, but if ingested the next day will likely produce a significant reaction.

c) Variable allergy – A person with variable allergies may react at certain times when eating a food, but tolerate it well on other occa­sions. Some people react to specific foods when certain pollens are in the air, but not at other times. This may represent a complex cumula­tive response to common antigenic material in several foods, or a reac­tion to a combination of a food and a pollen. Some women react ad­versely to certain foods during a particular phase of the menstrual cycle, or during pregnancy. In most cases, the reason for the variabil­ity is not clear.

d2. The mechanism or mechanisms causing adverse reactions to foods are not clear. Although much early attention was focused on the role of IgE antibodies, it is clear that many reactions are mediated through other mechanisms. Much recent attention has focused on the role of IgG antibodies, and some workers believe that IgG antibodies corre­late more closely with the clinical picture of food allergy than do IgE antibodies. Prostaglandins and related hormones have been shown to play a role in some cases. In other cases, adverse reactions may be non-immunologic responses.

3. There is no 100 percent reliable test for food allergy to which other tests can be compared. With no reliable standard of comparison, there is no way that any new test can be reliably judged. Almost daily we see patients in the office who have been tested with skin or RAST tests who are puzzled by the results. They usually describe negative testing for foods to which they clearly and predictably react, and posi­tive tests for foods which they have repeatedly eliminated and reintro­duced with no observable clinical response. Each test has its limita­tions and shortcomings, including the following:

a) History – Many patients have a history of reacting after in­gesting a meal, but do not have a clear understanding of what specific food caused the reaction. Many patients ingest specific foods like dairy products or wheat several times daily, and have never deliberately avoided those and other foods long enough to see if symptoms clear. Many are puzzled by the observation that they seem to react to a spe­cific food sometimes, but not at other times. Most patients do not have enough understanding of the nature of food reactions to have intelli­gently evaluated individual foods.

b) Food Re-challenge – After a food is avoided for a time and then reintroduced, there may be no initial response if the reaction happens to be cumulative or variable. The best that can be determined by a one time challenge is that the person must not have an immedi­ate, fixed reaction to that food. A food challenge must be repeated several times over two days or so to rule out these other forms of food reaction.

c) Double-blind food capsule test – Although this test may work reasonably well for a fixed reaction on someone with a low threshold for that food, it is in general a very unreliable test for food reactivity. One study showed that this technique correlated in only 30 percent of cases with skin testing and in less than 8 percent of cases with RAST testing.”

d) RAST and related tests – RAST tests for IgE have shown a reasonable correlation to food reactions, but it is clear that many non IgE responses occur in response to food ingestion. IgG testing is be­ coming popular, and some advocates believe it correlates better with clinical responses to food challenge. Obviously, IgG antibodies also do not explain the whole realm of food reactivity.

e) Skin testing – Various types of skin responses have been investigated and are reasonably correlated with clinical food response in some tests but not in others. It was long thought that the skin re­ sponse was mediated exclusively through IgE antibodies. If this were the case, a better correlation between IgE antibodies and skin responses should be shown (unless both tests simply have a high level of error).

Disadvantages and Advantages of Electrodermal Testing

fDisadvantages – Antihistamines, corticosteroids, and other medications may suppress a person’s immune reactivity, resulting in false positive readings on the instrument. Skin testing may also be suppressed in the same way. False positive reactions may occur in response to chemi­ cals in the environment in which testing occurs (such as reactions to perfumes, cleaners, etc.).

Occasionally, for unknown reasons, the in­strument fails to identify a food, chemical or inhalant to which a per­son by history repeatedly reacts. The instrument may also occasion­ally identify an allergen as positive, even though avoidance and re­- exposure fails to confirm that finding. Although not perfect, double­-blind studies using electrodermal testing have shown a better correla­tion with food allergy than any other known test.

It is also the clinical impression of many practitioners that electrodermal testing correlates more closely with the observations of the patient than the more traditional forms of testing. Other advocates of electrodermal testing share this viewpoint. One doctor from Colorado reported the results of a survey of 109 patients tested with this technique. All had been tested by some other method in the past, and 69 percent thought that the results of electrodermal testing were more reliable than more conventional testing, with only 5 percent reporting it less reliable. The rest either thought it was the same or didn’t comment. Since there is no reliable standard by which to compare electrodermal testing, at the present time there is no reli­able way to assess its accuracy.

Perhaps the biggest disadvantage of electrodermal testing is the poor acceptance of the technique by some physicians. There has been a tendency by some, with a 1910 mentality, to dismiss it as pure “quack­ery” without even knowing any more about it than it is some kind of electric device. According to a California colleague, a state official pro­nounced that he had proven that the use of electrodiagnostic instru­ments is pure quackery, because he had personally tested one out that he had confiscated from a local practitioner and showed conclusively that it didn’t work.

dUnfortunately, all too many physicians are pre­pared to accept this type of judgement, while rejecting all the world literature to the contrary Even back in the 1700’s, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe knew about this type of mentality when he stated “we are accustomed to having men jeer at what they do not understand.”

Advantages – Electrodermal testing seems to be at least as reliable, and probably more reliable, than other forms of allergy testing avail­able. It is much safer than skin or challenge testing, since exposure to the allergenic substance is minimal. It is also much more pleasant for the patient than skin testing, since the testing itself is completely painless. There are also no unpleasant adverse reactions, which may last for many days with skin or challenge testing.

Electrodermal testing is generally much less expensive than other forms of testing. A typical charge from a traditional allergist for a series of skin or rast test is often between, €200 and €300. Most Electrodermal practitioners would charge about 1/3 of these prices for testing well over 100 items.

One of the biggest advantages of using electrodermal testing is in de­tecting sensitivities and identifying optimal treatment dosages instead of relying on trial and error, as used in intracutaneous serial dilution titration techniques, or with sublingual provocative-neutralization tech­niques.

fAnother useful application of electrodermal testing is in testing medi­cations. Every doctor in primary care is faced with patients who seem to react to a lot of different medications, and who need to be given something to control blood pressure, or who need surgery, or who are on a lot of medications and there is strong evidence that they are react­ing to one or more of their drugs.

There is a great deal of concern about Iatrogenic disease these days, in fact believed to be responsible for about 36 percent of hospital ad­ missions. 36 An estimated 2 percent of hospital patients even die from iatrogenic causes. 37 A great number of these unfortunate problems are caused by adverse reactions to drugs. Skin testing for identifying such problems is rather inadequate, since many of the drugs are not avail­ able in an injectable form for testing purposes.

Even if an injectable form is available, the patient still might react to the dyes, fillers, or excipients in the oral form. Many of the reactions from drugs are non IgE, and may not even show up on skin testing. In the past, the only option was trial and error, and it was often only after several unpleas­ant reactions that a tolerable, effective choice was found. With trying to sort out a patient’s problems on a lot of drugs, it is even more com­plex. One has the dilemma of trying to decide whether to stop every­ thing and then reintroduce medications one at a time, whether to stop only one drug at a time, or whether to try switching some of their drugs to other types.

Going off of certain medications can be poten­tially dangerous to the patient. The electrodermal testing will usually indicate within a few minutes which medications are likely to be a problem. This testing can also indicate which medications are likely to be well tolerated. Based on that information, it is generally a simple matter to avoid the problem drug, and introduce medication likely to be well tolerated. Although this technique is not foolproof, and may not pick up every type of adverse reaction, it is certainly a lot better than a shot in the dark as with an entirely trial and error approach.

We have had several patients who experienced severe reactions to the anesthetics or other drugs used during previous surgical procedures. We have been able to test for reactions to various classes of medications needed, find presumably safe alternatives, and then have these drugs used by the anesthesiologist and surgeon. In the cases in which we have participated, the patients have tolerated the anesthesia and post surgical medications beautifully. Of course the patients and the doctors involved were told that the testing was no iron-clad guarantee that no reactions would occur, but would at least provide a good chance of a reaction-free procedure.


dAcupuncture points have been known for thousands of years, and the principles of electricity have been understood (at least somewhat) since before the 1600’s. It has been known for many years that acupuncture points have different electrical conduction than the surrounding tis­sues. Changes in these electrical readings in conjunction with disease states has been investigated extensively. Using electrodiagnostic in­struments for measuring allergy responses has been around for over 35 years. This technology has been studied and utilized around the world by thousands of doctors. Many studies, including a number of double-blind studies have been done validating this procedure.

The chances of these reported results occurring by chance alone are one in many millions. Electrodiagnostic testing has many advantages and would certainly be useful in every hospital and in the office of every doctor who prescribes medications.

It is the belief of this writer that the use of electrodiagnostic testing fulfills all the requirements to be considered adequately proven, including:

1. A number of double-blind studies from various centers vali­dating its efficacy.

2. Experts in the field who deal with this technology acknowledging its usefulness and accuracy.

3. Electrodiagnostic test­ing having been in use around the world for many years by thousands of medical doctors. Because it has virtually no dangers and is very inexpensive, anyone who singles out this procedure for investigation above the myriad of medical procedures which are much less proven, more dangerous, and more expensive, does so arbitrarily and capri­ciously, and for reasons other than a concern for the patient’s health and well being.


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The History of Electricity

The Story of Electricity

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